On the last day of his life Moshe gathers all of the Israelites and renews their covenant with G-d. This covenant also introduces the concept of Areivut, mutual responsibility for one another. He warns them against committing idolatry; G-d's anger and jealousy will be kindled against anyone who turns to the gods of the other nations. The punishment will be so great that the Land of Israel will be decimated, causing future generations to recognise that G-d has punished His nation. The Jews will be exiled to the four corners of the earth.
Eventually, through the difficulties of this exile the Jews will return to serving G-d. Then He will gather all of them to the Land of Israel and give them blessing and prosperity. The Torah is not distant from the Jews, but is accessible to all. Moshe tells the Jews that G-d has placed before them life and good, death and evil, and beseeches them to chose life. Moshe ends by calling heaven and earth as witnesses that the Jews should not forsake G-d and the Torah.